Taking antibiotics can alter the normal presence of bacteria in the bowel and lead to an “overgrowth” of the Clostridium difficile. Bacteria-eating viruses kill C diff – An alternative to antibiotics? Tweet Thanks to Bruce Miller, who posts on this site, for bringing this article, “ Discovery of virus that ‘eats’ bacteria that causes C. It is estimated that 1 in 5 North Texans could be a carrier of the C-diff germ. There are 2 main types of clostridium bacteria that are more frequently met in dogs: the clostridium perfringens and clostridium difficile. I called my surgeons nurse who immediately diagnosed the symptoms as c-diff and advised I visit my local GP here in Aspen. Diff - How long for normal stool? Hi, I have been treated for C. Although noting that C. is part of the normal balance of bacteria in your body. It is highly contagious and spread via spore in the infected patient’s poop. As Clostridium difficile (C. The Peggy Lillis Foundation disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information and encourages you to visit your doctor if you suspect you have Clostridium difficile. Diseases contagious from saliva information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis. diff infection if: You have recently been cared for in a hospital, doctor's office, or long-term care facility. The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. difficile is one of them. Clostridium Difficile (C. At this time, no commercial assay is approved for this purpose, and culture can take up to 4 days. The contagious period for stomach flu varies depending on the virus that is causing your symptoms. How long is a person contagious after having the stomach flu (stomach virus)? (What is the contagious period for norovirus and others?) Answer: A person is still contagious for at least 3 days after symptoms have stopped. Clostridium difficile is one of the leading causes of infectious diarrhea in the United States and infections can range from mild to life threatening. for long periods of time without any symptoms. Re: How Long Is C Diff Contagious After it is positive for C. It lives harmlessly in the gut of many people. The CDI component of the. Even if a doctor has prescribed you antibiotics for a secondary infection (like bronchitis, for instance) the cold is still contagious as long as you are sneezing and coughing (though it's most contagious in the first few days). Clostridium difficile PCR is designed to amplify 2 different genes that are specific to toxigenic strains of C difficile: tcdB, which encodes for toxin B, and tcdC, which encodes for a toxin regulatory pathway. Results are ready within 1 hour. It can sometimes seem like it is mostly water, in fact. The thing you need most is BLEACH, which should be used to kill C. difficile Laboratory Test Information For Patients and Healthcare Providers Testing for Clostridium difficile toxin with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can improve the laboratory diagnoses of C difficile-associated diarrhea, compared with A/B enzyme immunoassay (EIA), according to results from a study presented at a Association. Diff, is an anerobic bacteria in the same family as bacteria that cause tetanus and gas gangrene. Gifts are tax deductible to the extent provided by law. A severe complication is mega-colon (when your colon swells, and is at risk of rupture). diff) is a contagious bacteria. As long as we get some movement in, it's better than nothing. More severe, even life-threatening, cases \can include more pronounced c diff symptoms that may include: Diarrhea A watery diarrhea is usually the main symptom of C Diff. Clostridium Difficile, or C. Recent data suggest that community-associated CDI represents one-third of all C difficile cases. including symptoms, doctors, medical advances, medications, If you are a new poster (joined within the last month), you can post more often for two months from your date of joining. Clostridium difficile PCR is designed to amplify 2 different genes that are specific to toxigenic strains of C difficile: tcdB, which encodes for toxin B, and tcdC, which encodes for a toxin regulatory pathway. The infection most commonly affects people who have recently been treated with antibiotics. How long does it take for antibiotics to work? Consumer Reports looks at new evidence that a shorter course of antibiotics works as well as longer treatment and can be safer. Here we show that human virulent C. C-diff being carried to your mom isn't the issue - she's already got the spores in her system - it lays dormant until the intestinal balance is thrown off (usually by the use of antibiotics) and then it becomes active until it is brought under control again by either vancomycin or flagyll. diff never develop an active infection. for long periods of time without any symptoms. Identification Of Candida Armpits also of importance. diff) antibiotic related colitis. diff) is a statewide educational initiative that engages Illinois hospitals and long term care facilities in successful strategies to prevent and control C. diff spores are extremely resilient and cannot be killed by. Clostridium Difficile (C. How long is a person contagious after having the stomach flu (stomach virus)? (What is the contagious period for norovirus and others?) Answer: A person is still contagious for at least 3 days after symptoms have stopped. diff can usually be treated with antibiotics, but sometimes more intense treatments are needed to get rid of the infection. diff): A gram positive bacteria that can form spores and produce toxins known as toxins A and B. Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC) is an infection of the colon by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile – associated disease (CDAD), his/her doctor will order a stool culture to be tested for C. C diff infection is usually a result of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea,can lead to chronic diarrhea, stomach pain and even intestinal damage that requires surgery if it is not recognized. How is C diff spread? How long? This C. diff spores are extremely resilient and cannot be killed by using alcohol rubs. diff is the most important cause of infectious diarrhea in the United States, but it's a bit player on the long roster of intestinal bacteria. diff and our goal is to help save people's lives. Clostridium difficile (C. The organism, which has been isolated from soil, sand, hay and animal dung, is a. difficile Laboratory Test Information For Patients and Healthcare Providers Testing for Clostridium difficile toxin with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can improve the laboratory diagnoses of C difficile-associated diarrhea, compared with A/B enzyme immunoassay (EIA), according to results from a study presented at a Association. The elderly and those requiring long hospital or nursing home stays are at greatest risk. Seems a bit odd your GI would up your Lialda preemptively. Infection with C. Clostridium difficile spores are extremely hardy, and can survive for long amounts of time in environments devoid of food. How long does Clostridium difficile live outside the body? I am not sure how long it will live outside the body, but this does not necessarily matter as many people are carriers. However, disruption of the body’s normal balance of bacteria can allow C. We welcome all of our employees and their children for easy-to-access services, and we provide free parking in Lot 5 on the Long Campus for added convenience. Clostridium difficile, or C. difficile produces two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which damage intestinal cells and cause inflammation in the gut. Re: How Long Is C Diff Contagious After it is positive for C. difficile is the most frequent cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitals and long-term care facilities in Canada, as well as in other industrialized countries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 4,754 views. Bobulsky GS, Al-Nassir, WN, Riggs MM, Sethi AK, Donskey CJ. You can catch the common cold from over 200 different viruses that lurk in the air and on common surfaces. Many people are concerned about mercer infection. It is hard to answer and may not really matter that much, in fact. • The bacteria are transmitted when the spores are ingested. I am on antibiotic and feeling weak what should i do? Does flagyl clear all signs of infection if taken for 7 days twice? C diff how long for flagyl to take effect. difficile can be very contagious. Testing for Clostridium difficile Infection - Duration: 6:05. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a disease of the large intestine caused by toxins produced by the spore forming bacterium Clostridium difficile. It can result in mild to serious illness. diff) is a type of bacteria that is associated with diarrhea resulting from antibiotic use. Clostridium difficile is the major cause of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Gifts are tax deductible to the extent provided by law. Find out what you can do to help stop the spread of this dangerous infection. Sapovirus: An Important Cause of Gastroenteritis Outbreaks. It is often caught by individuals when their hands touch very small amounts of fecal matter that is contaminated by C Diff. The typical example is stepping on a rusty nail. difficile produces two major kinds of toxins that are very potent and lethal; an enterotoxin ( Toxin A ) and a cytotoxin (Toxin B, this protein). Your gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to many healthy bacteria, and sometimes C. It's not at all clear how long it takes to get C. Diff Incubation Period? The exact length of the C. The length of time a germ remains infectious depends mostly on the type of germ it is. This problematic diarrheal illness is the most common healthcare-associated infection in the United States. Hand sanitizers won't work with Clostridium. is part of the normal balance of bacteria in your body. Among the most common are noroviruses and rotaviruses. diff): A gram positive bacteria that can form spores and produce toxins known as toxins A and B. Newer diagnostic tests for CDI require less stool testing without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy. Clostridium difficile, also known as C. diff, can be found throughout the environment. Visitors and staff are required to wear a disposable gown and gloves to go into the room. diff infections can cause stomach pain, diarrhea, fever, and loss of appetite. diff incubation period is not known, but it’s generally fewer than seven days. (2019, October 30). diff Contagious? Experience. difficile toxin tests identify the presence of these bacteria, genes associated with toxin production, and/or detect the toxins produced by them. Antibiotics can wipe out the GOOD bacteria, enabling the C-diff bacteria to proliferate. diff case study was excerpted from C. The virus cannot survive long in a dry environment but can survive for weeks in a moist. by Maggie especially after people take long courses of antibiotics that can kill good germs as well as the bad ones. Hand washing is the thing to pay attention to when leaving a C-diff room. People can develop a Clostridium difficile infection in several ways, including:. infection can be mild and go away on their own, or after stopping the use of antibiotics. There is no exact answer to this question because it depends on the person, their line of treatment and how well the body fights off the infection. Clostridium difficile (C. Re: How Long Is C Diff Contagious After it is positive for C. The drug may cut all-cause mortality in patients with severe C difficile infection. Alternatively, C-diff can be cultured and then tested for the presence of toxins. More severe, even life-threatening, cases \can include more pronounced c diff symptoms that may include: Diarrhea A watery diarrhea is usually the main symptom of C Diff. Find out what you can do to help stop the spread of this dangerous infection. difficile Laboratory Test Information For Patients and Healthcare Providers Testing for Clostridium difficile toxin with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can improve the laboratory diagnoses of C difficile-associated diarrhea, compared with A/B enzyme immunoassay (EIA), according to results from a study presented at a Association. diff is generally acquired when people have illness or conditions requiring prolonged use of antibiotics Symptoms include watery diarrhea, fever and abdominal tenderness Only soap and water hand hygiene method effective Disinfect surfaces with bleach products 5. Clostridium difficile May cause approximately 30% of cases of healthcare associated diarrhea Colonization rate of C. But, coming in de novo to the clinician’s office (someone from the community), how do you suspect Clostridium difficile? Who needs to be tested?. We know that individuals with C. Stool C difficile toxin. difficile, is a bacterial pathogen that causes inflammation in the large bowels (colon) of some mammals. By Kesa Wilson. Seems a bit odd your GI would up your Lialda preemptively. Am I being. They would like to know when they and their family or friends can stop worrying about transmission caused by someone suffering a c diff outbreak. They put my mother in room by herself because C-diff highly contagious. Clostridium difficile (C difficile) bacteria may overgrow in the large intestine after a person has been on antibiotics for an infection. How long is c-diff contagious if you are on an antibiotic to fix it? And what is considered diarrhea? Is mushy st more How long is c-diff contagious if you are on an antibiotic to fix it? And what is considered diarrhea? Is mushy stool considered diarrhea?. C diff is contagious infection with symptoms such as abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fever, bloating, and more. C Diff Colitis is mainly characterized by inflammation of the colon, leading to extreme and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms. Hand sanitizers won't work with Clostridium. Under ordinary circumstances, the majority of them are harmless, and even helpful. Recovery Time For C Diff. Learn about the symptoms and treatment of C. How long is a person contagious after having the stomach flu (stomach virus)? (What is the contagious period for norovirus and others?) Answer: A person is still contagious for at least 3 days after symptoms have stopped. difficile infection are hospital patients or long-term care facility patients who require extended treatments with antibiotics, which eventually. each year and killing 15,000. Help Subscribe My Clannel. What North Texans should Know about C-diff. Your chance of getting C. diff (Clostridium difficile) is a multi-drug resistant bacterium most commonly found in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Not all strains of C. Florida attorneys Cavey and Barrett present a list of common conditions that could qualify you for disability benefits. Diff and other bacteria might live in a person's intestines. I seem to remember Vanco working much faster before, but I could be wrong. diff colitis) are the two common types of this condition we will discuss. diff unless the sample is watery. Committee Coordinators. Although almost any antibiotic can lead to this condition, the most common antibiotics that pose a potential risk for C difficile include: clindamycin (Cleocin),. In about 20 percent of patients, the infection will resolve within 2 to 3 days of discontinuing the antibiotic to which the patient was previously exposed. Clostridium difficile is transmitted from patient to. Clostridium difficile Skin Contamination in Patients with C. difficile is an infection that most commonly occurs in hospitals and other healthcare settings, like nursing homes. Clostridium difficile had its name coined because of the difficulty in its isolation. Diff - How long for normal stool? Hi, I have been treated for C. Gifts are tax deductible to the extent provided by law. diff) is a bacterium that causes diarrhea and colitis (an inflammation of the colon). Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus that colonizes the colon and transmits itself via the fecal-oral route. Share in the message dialogue to help others and address questions on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments, from MedicineNet's doctors. tomorrow if things don't start improving. difficile infections. Patrick's Day meals of corned beef. How Long Is C Diff Infection Contagious Cough Barky Pain Chest the first seen in The diseased organisations between herpes) Herpes Simplex Epithelial Keratitis and allergy. difficile, C. difficile), is a bacterium that can cause symptoms such as diarrhea and fever. - Oral vancomycin (125 mg four times daily) is second-line therapy, but is often avoided due to concerns of converting intestinal flora into vancomycin-resistant organisms. This inflammation is known as colitis. tempo otc substitute for fluconazole for yeast infection oral can I buy one over the fluconazole and c diff why cant you drink alcohol while taking more itchy after. How? Many healthy people have C diff in their digestive tract. No one is exempt from being contagious when the symptoms of norovirus start to manifest. I was placed in a quarantine room. How Long Is C Diff Contagious After Starting Flagyl. What causes a C Diff infection, and is it contagious? C Diff Colitis is an infection caused by the Clostridium Difficile bacteria and often develops after use of antibiotics. By continuing to use this site you consent to the use of cookies on your device as described in our cookie policy unless you have disabled them. Diff, is an anerobic bacteria in the same family as bacteria that cause tetanus and gas gangrene. diff contagious?” The answer is yes. diff contagious?" The answer is yes. Local health departments are required to report some 80 communicable diseases to the California Department of Public Health as part of the disease surveillance and investigation efforts. difficile, or C. Clostridioides difficile (syn. Clostridium difficile (C. The majority of people who are carriers of C. E was a feisty 80-year-old grandmother living alone in her home with two cats and a canary. difficile is a bacterium that causes colitis, or inflammation of the colon. diff?" they are really asking two questions: One: What is the illness like and, two, what causes it. difficile is a bacterium that causes colitis, or inflammation of the colon. Nicole Fyffe, Pima County Administrator’s Office (520) 724-8661 Deseret Romero, Pima County Administrator's Office (520) 724-8661. C Diff Return To Work. A subtype of infectious colitis is Clostridium difficile colitis, which is informally abbreviated as "C-diff colitis". Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an increasingly important healthcare-associated infection associated with long hospitalisations and high patient morbidity and mortality. C-diff is very contagious. Is MRSA Contagious Staph Infection? MRSA is a type of bacteria, which has been known to cause severe complications in humans. difficile toxins. What Is Chronic Inflammatory Lung Disease How C Contagious Diff Long Surfaces Is. difficile or C. difficile Laboratory Test Information For Patients and Healthcare Providers Testing for Clostridium difficile toxin with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can improve the laboratory diagnoses of C difficile-associated diarrhea, compared with A/B enzyme immunoassay (EIA), according to results from a study presented at a Association. It is, in some cases, a normal resident of the human intestinal tract. diff are loss of appetite, abdominal pain and sometimes fever. diff infection is antibiotic use. diff infections can cause stomach pain, diarrhea, fever, and loss of appetite. Clostridium difficile (C. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults and Children: 2017 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). are anaerobic , motile bacteria, ubiquitous in nature, and especially prevalent in soil. They usually treat it with Flagyl and Vancomycin I think it can be painful for the patient since there's so much diarrhea. Patients are also sometimes exposed to c diff in hospital environments. difficile or C. E was a feisty 80-year-old grandmother living alone in her home with two cats and a canary. diff) What you need to know C. There is no exact answer to this question because it depends on the person, their line of treatment and how well the body fights off the infection. Other school for at least one hour before or two hours after Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or other necessities. CDI is associated with altering or eliminating the normal lower. difficile can worsen quickly and can be very hard to get rid of for many people. Misdiagnosis of C. is that accurate? How likely is it that I'm contagious with no symptoms?. coli are bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. How is C diff spread? How long? This C. Reduce the rate of the recurrence of C. While susceptibility. It can result in mild to serious illness. Learn more from WebMD about the symptoms and what doctors can do to. diff is contagious, but it is not transmitted by air. C difficile infection (CDI) commonly manifests as mild to moderate diarrhea, occasionally with abdominal cramping. Menu of Strategies to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infections, December 2012 RESOURCES APIC Elimination Guide. diff by consuming C. each year and killing 15,000. difficile) caused almost half a million infections among patients one year (in just the US) 29,000 of those infected died within a month of being diagnosed. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (ISDA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). including symptoms, doctors, medical advances, medications, If you are a new poster (joined within the last month), you can post more often for two months from your date of joining. diff infection is very low as long you wash your hands and clothing after exposure. for all these months & now the only thing it did was give me neuropathy of my feet from being on the one med for too long. Clostridium difficile, also known as C. How Long Is C Diff Contagious Apr 15, 2009 Thanks for the amazing Decon Shield tip, after I finished with the Homeland Security manual I went and checked out their site. It is possible, but difficult, to treat C Diff as it has grown resistant to many of the commonly used antibiotics. You can be contagious before such telltale symptoms as sneezing, stuffy or runny nose, sore throat and coughing even begin. The majority of people who are carriers of C. How Dogs Get Clostridium Difficile. diff are abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever. The Illinois Campaign to Eliminate Clostridium difficile (ICE C. Our goal is to improve the quality of care and life for the 1. Want More Information? The accumulation of bile in the urine makes it appear darker than usual. Hm, C-diff is not really - contagious, since it is a normal bacteria in the colon. And I think since I had it for so long with my first bout, it made it even harder to kill all the spores. It is, in some cases, a normal resident of the human intestinal tract. Isolation of Patients. Identification Of Candida Armpits also of importance. Clostridium difficile are spore-forming bacteria that normally live in the colon, or large bowel. How long after taking flagyl for C-Diff should I feel Better? I have been on Flagyl for 5 days for c-diff and I am out of the hospital how long it takes to. Do not skip the antibioticpill or miss to apply the antibiotic cream. Clostridium is a bacterial infection that affects dogs and will manifest mainly through diarrhea. Bleach is the only thing that will kill the C. It lives harmlessly in the gut of many people. difficile is an extremely contagious infection, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not give a definite time period during which the patient remains infectious. difficile or C. diff infection include watery diarrhea, fever, nausea and belly pain/tenderness. Clostridium difficile (C. Clostridium difficile (C. Accurate prediction. 3 A person usually gets a C. diff – what’s the diff? In either of the above cases—dirt, infectious diarrhea, C. diff is caused by antibiotic use or contact with contaminated surfaces. diff infection. difficile or norovirus— use the first available method of cleaning, and then soap and water as soon as you can get to a sink. Helicobacter pylori bacteria has been infecting us humans since our earliest days, more than 100,000 years ago…even before the evolution of modern man!The organism lives in the stomach lining and causes chronic inflammation called gastritis, acting as a strong risk factor for both ulcer formation and stomach cancer. Stomach flu is not really influenza but viral gastroenteritis, an illness characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. How Long Is C. This is a drug that is on of 3 or 4 that's well known to kill off all the good bacteria in the gut & all you are left with is C. My GP confirmed c-diff was present and started me on one round of antibiotics with no improvement. It was first isolated and described in the mid-1930s and later identified as the etiological agent of pseuodomembranous colitis. diff infection) results from a bacterium that lives in the intestines. Three years ago, the hospital had 5. Some recommendations seem to mirror previous guideline recommendations. Patients are also sometimes exposed to c diff in hospital environments. You can catch the common cold from over 200 different viruses that lurk in the air and on common surfaces. A Canadian Pharmacy offering discounts on cheap prescriptions medications, order and buy your drugs online. If the symptoms are properly diagnosed as caused by the influenza virus ( there are tests to confirm the flu is the cause), antibiotics should. Vancomycin is used to a treat a bacterial infection in your bowel caused by Clostridium difficile (C. It can exist in two forms: a dormant spore that has a tough protein coat, and a vegetative form that results from spore germination. diff infection is very low as long you wash your hands and clothing after exposure. Gastrointestinal surgery (changes gut flora). This is nearly always associated with the use of antibiotics. Clostridium difficile (C. diff is present in tiny numbers and is usually harmless. for all these months & now the only thing it did was give me neuropathy of my feet from being on the one med for too long. He did not have any other symptoms that were associated iwth c-diff like fever, cramping, etc. C-diff is confirmed when an antitoxin reverses the effects of the toxin on the cells. difficile in healthcare settings. {{configCtrl2. metaDescription}} This site uses cookies. They put my mother in room by herself because C-diff highly contagious. diff?" they are really asking two questions: One: What is the illness like and, two, what causes it. Clostridium difficile is a cause of diarrhea in children. The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires the detection of bacterial toxin and/or antigens in the stool. difficile again: either the original infection was only partially treated, or they get reinfected with the bacteria again. The virus cannot survive long in a dry environment but can survive for weeks in a moist. If it is not inside your body th(i. The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over the past decades with the emergence of highly virulent strains. difficile produce toxin so some people carry the bacteria but do not get sick from it. diff infections are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of. diff and MRSA can live on surfaces for days and can be passed from person to person on hospital equipment or the hands of health care workers. difficile or C. Within a month of. diff, a bacterium most often associated with hospitals and other in-patient health care settings. diff can usually be treated with antibiotics, but sometimes more intense treatments are needed to get rid of the infection. Hand sanitizers won't work with Clostridium. Clostridium difficile, commonly known as C. difficile testing and C. difficile, C. There is no exact answer to this question because it depends on the person, their line of treatment and how well the body fights off the infection. diff) is a bacterium that is normally present in the body in small numbers. diff question would belong in the Health forum, but I'll respond to the unasked question about caregiving: Reach out to any of your mother's friends and encourage them to visit her. Risk Factors for C. infection can be mild and go away on their own, or after stopping the use of antibiotics. But there are actions you can take to prevent it. They can last a short period of time or many months. Want More Information? The accumulation of bile in the urine makes it appear darker than usual. Clostridium difficile, commonly known as C. This page contains the laboratory case definition for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). difficile, or C. difficile or C. 7 Tips To Prevent C. Re: How Long Is C Diff Contagious After it is positive for C. Symptoms of C. McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Overgrowth of C-diff does not occur with infection, but because of derranged colonic flora, usualy after taking antibiotics. difficile bacteria living in their gut. difficile proliferates, producing toxins and. How can you get sick from the harmful type of E. Within a month of diagnosis, 1 in 11 people over age 65 died of a healthcare-associated C. A Canadian Pharmacy offering discounts on cheap prescriptions medications, order and buy your drugs online. diff (Clostridium difficile) is a multi-drug resistant bacterium most commonly found in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Clostridium difficile (commonly called C. difficile can produce toxins that make people sick. Diff, short for Clostridium Difficile, is a bacteria that exists all around us. Diff for 14 days with Flagyl and about 7 or 8 days with oral Vancomycin plus oral Flagyl. Am I being. The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires the detection of bacterial toxin and/or antigens in the stool.